On her way to work, Amelia passes by a pond. One day, she sees a child in the pond, struggling for air. Amelia would try to rescue the child if she could, but she’s in a wheelchair and can’t. Bob, who is fit and healthy, is also by the pond, watching the child drown. Amelia tells Bob to try to save the child, but for some reason Bob refuses. So, Amelia pulls out her gun, which she always brings with her, and tells Bob that she will shoot him if he refuses to try to save the child from drowning.

Does Bob have a duty to save the child?

Does Amelia have a duty to force Bob to save the child?

The Universality formula: “Act only in accordance with that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it become a universal law.”

The Humanity formula: “So act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.”